java extensions 101 with MPS

In the past years I have done lots of work in C# and recently came back to work with Java because I am
now working in a project that involves MPS. The Meta Programming System from JetBrains. Which is a
language workbench with a projectional editor. I got quite used to some of the features C# offers.
One of the features I love the most is implicit strong typed variables, expressed with the var keyword
as type in a variable declarations. Due to the extensible nature of MPS it is quite easy to extend existing
languages. So I decided to build this feature in MPS for Java.

Now you might think this ridiculously crazy since it is hard to change an existing language. But in MPS
everything is about modularization, extensibility and composition of languages. And It ships with a
Java implementation called baselanguage out of the box. For me it took 30 minutes of work to build
this extension. Though I have a lot of experience with MPS and a good knowledge of baselanguage
but even if you don't have that it should take you not longer than an hour to do it on your own. And that is
what this tutorial is about. What I will show here is how to extend
baselanguage with a new kind of variable declaration that uses its initializer to calculate its type.

The result should look like this:

    public class Foo {

    public void main() {
        var test = 42;

        if (test == 42) {

So what we do first is create a new language in MPS and we add jetbrains.mps.baselanguage to the
extended languages like this:

/images/java-101/1.png 650

After that we create a new language concept called VarDeclaration which extends LocalVariableDeclaration
the local variable declaration concept in baselanguage. We also assign the alias var to it. This is later
used to enter the declaration. All together it should look like this:

/images/java-101/2.png 650

Now that we have a language concept it needs a editor. So we go for it and define a editor similar to
one of LocalVariableDeclaration from baselanguage. Since I am lazy I just copied it from there
and replaced the type field with a static text var:

/images/java-101/3.png 650

Because we extend the existing LocalVariableDeclaration concept we also have a Type child in our
concept. And we need to put some data in there to make MPS happy. But we don't have it in our editor
and we don't want the user to mess with this. So we create a behavior aspect for our concept. This
allows us to write constructor code that is executed each time a instance of our concept is created. But
shouldn't we infer the type from the initializer? How can we set a type in the constructor where the
user hasn't entered a initializer?
Here we use a little trick from baselanguage. It has a special type called
UndefinedType which will toggle thy typesystem to not use the Type child of the concept in its
rules but rather rely on the typesystems runtime information. This makes some operations a bit more
expensive but gives us more flexibility:

/images/java-101/4.png 650

After we have told the typesystem to use its runtime information instead of relying on static information
we need to tell it how to calculate these runtime information. To do so we need a typesystem rule. We
want to infer a type so its a inference typesystem rule. The rule itself is quite simple. The rule says that
the type of the variable declaration is the same type as its initializer. In MPS we can express this with a
single line:

/images/java-101/5.png 650

But we also want to ensure that user enters a initializer so that we are able to calculate the type from it.
And point out that the user has to enter one in the declaration. We can also us the typesystem to do so. This is called a none
typesystem rule or a check rule. Those rules don't contribute type information at runtime but they ensure
properties of the code. In our case we want to check if the initializer is null and if so we want to show
a error:

/images/java-101/6.png 650

Ok, now we are finished aren't we? Nope! There is still some aspect missing. We need to have a Java/Text
representation of our concept. Through its extensible nature MPS would invoke the text generator of
the LocalVariableDeclaration which we extended. But this one tries to use the Type child to write
the Java type to the text buffer. In our case this one is always UndefinedType. That is why we need
to create our own. Once again we can use the existing one as a blueprint. And replace the Type child
with runtime information from the typesystem. To do so we ask the typechecker for the type of the
initializer and pass it where the type of the variable is expected:

/images/java-101/7.png 650

That's all! We are finished now. You can cretate a sanbox solution add the newly created language to the
used languages and see what happen when you type var. A new variable declaration shows up that
just looks like the one in C#. And when you generate Java code from it it will look like plain Java:

    var test = 42;

    if (test == 42) {

And the generated code:

    int test = 42;

    if (test == 42) {

You can get the source code for this sample here.